Madrid Codex, leaves 13-16
The Madrid Codex was originally identified as two separate manuscripts of unequal lengths called the Manuscrit Troano and the Codex Cortesianus. The two parts were identified as elements of one codex and were reunited in 1892. The original Madrid Codex is now housed in the Museo de América in Madrid and is sometimes referred to as the Codex Tro-Cortesianus. The leaves displayed show a portion of the almanac section used by priests to perform divination rites relating to essential daily activities such as hunting, weaving, and agriculture. The four horizontal rows in the lower half of each panel are composed of the glyphs of the 20 named days which, as in the Aztec calendar, cycle 13 times through the 260-day Sacred Year.
Sky serpents who send the rain and speak in thunder are shown weaving around
the rows of glyphs. Circles with a cross-hatch design drawn on the bodies of the
serpents symbolize Chicchan, the 5th of the 20 named days, perhaps associating
that named day with the rain gods or rain ceremonies. In leaf 16 a death god is
depicted wearing his characteristic "death eyes" in a collar, as well as at his
wrists and ankles. The glyph just above and to the right of his head is the symbol
for both death and the sixth named day, Cimi. On this leaf a Cimi
day-glyph is the third glyph down in the second column from the right. If a priest
reading the codex for divination purposes arrived at this symbol, it was considered
an ill omen of death or illness.
Just above the Cimi glyph is the symbol for Imix (the 1st of
the 20 named days), an auspicious sign of abundance when reading portents. Above
and to the right of the death god, resting on the red horizontal line, is the
maize god. He holds in his hand the sign of Kan (symbolizing both maize
and the 4th day), on top of which appears the Imix glyph. In leaf 17 two
rain gods, called Chacs (one is upside down), are above the rows of glyphs.