"Aristotle and the Franciscans: Gerald Odonis' Commentary on
The Nichomachean Ethics." Ph.D. Dissertation,
Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International (April 1985), 45(10A):3150-A.
Abstract: "The purpose of this study is to place Gerald Odonis' commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics in its proper historical context. Odonis was master of theology who served as Minister General of the Franciscans from 1329 to 1342. In the late Middle Ages, he was known as the Moral Doctor. In modern times, he is best known as an ally of Pope John XXII--the same pope who canonized the Dominican Thomas Aquinas and declared heretical the doctrine of evangelical poverty so dear to most Franciscans. Odonis' views on poverty, his connection with John, and his unpopularity as leader of the order all raise doubts about his fidelity to the Franciscan tradition. Odonis' decision to comment on the Ethics raises further doubts about his loyalties. Historians usually see the Dominicans as Aristotelians. The Franciscans, who are deemed Augustinians, are often portrayed as opponents of Aristotle. As friend of Pope John and a commentator on the Ethics, one might expect Odonis to favor Thomas' opinions over those of the great Franciscan masters. Does Odonis' commentary prove him an innovator, who, as one historian suggests, avenged Aristotle for the hostility of his confreres? This study reviews the works of eight thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Franciscans to determine what the Franciscan tradition in ethics actually was in Odonis' day. The review reveals that few Franciscans ever displayed the hostility to Aristotle that has sometimes been attributed to them. It also shows clear precedents for Odonis' views. On free will, on incontinence, on the location and the connection of the virtues, Odonis' thinking consistently reflects the influence of his predecessors. He does not reject the teachings of earlier Franciscans in deference to the Philosopher. Instead, he seeks Aristotle's support for his own positions, and he uses Aristotle to argue against the teachings of Thomas Aquinas. If Odonis' readings of Aristotle are not always convincing, they are at least sufficiently plausible to cast doubt on the notion that Franciscan philosophy is irreconcilable with Aristotle's philosophy."
"The Good Will According to Gerald Odonis, Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham." Franciscan Studies (1986), 46(24):119-139.
Review of Tamar Rudavsky, ed., Divine Omniscience and Omnipotence in Medieval Philosophy: Islamic, Jewish and Christian Perspectives. Review of Metaphysics (June 1986), 39(4):783-784.
Review of Alan B. Wolter, trans. Duns Scotus on the Will and Morality. Journal of the History of Philosophy (April 1989), 27(2):303-305.
Review of John Duns Scotus' A Treatise on God as First Principle. Translated, edited and with commentary by Allan B. Wolter, O. F. M. International Philosophical Quarterly (September 1986), 26(3):298- 300.
"Transitory Vice: Thomas Aquinas on Incontinence." Journal of the History of Philosophy (April 1989), 27(2):199-223.
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Virtues of the Will: The Transformation of Ethics in the Late Thirteenth Century. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1995.
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Review of Marcia L. Colish, ed., Peter Lombard, 2 Vols. Journal of the History of Philosophy (January 1996), 34(1):140-142.
"Bonaventure." In Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 1, pp. 828-835. London & New York: Routledge, 1998.
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"Moral Growth and the Unity of the Virtues." In David Carr and Jan Steutel, eds., Virtue Ethics and Moral Education, pp. 109-124. Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education. London & New York: Routledge, 1999.
"Franciscan Thought." In Adrian Hastings, et al.,The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought, pp. 247-249. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
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"Augustine's Ethics." In Norman Kretzmann and Eleonore Stump, eds., Cambridge Companion to Augustine, pp. 205-233. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
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